Calmadow is the mountain range, which situates in the northeastern Somalia extending from several kilometers west of Bosaso to the north west of Erigavo.
The ecological importance of the Calmadow Mountain Range in N.E. Somalia is very significant due to its uniqueness in the Somali realm.
The thickly closed mountain forest has an altitude between 700-800 m above sea level with a mean annual rainfall of 750-850mm. The highest peak of the mountain range is 2500m at Shembir beris north west of Erigavo, in addition to the rainfall Calmadow receive additional precipitation, fogs and winter rains which support isolated forests such as Juniperus, Buxus etc,.
Mist also appears to be important in relation to the distribution of Juniperus (Dayib) which is one of the species utilized as timber by the local people. The Buxus (Dhoqos), (Dayib) and Celtis (boodaar) poles are cut from living trees in the evergreen forest for timber production. The discovery of the locust bean (Ceratonia), Lavanders and many other species has emphasized the many links Calmadow highlands have with the Mediterranean region.
Despite the current changes in land-use, Calmadow has internationally valuable un-exploited mineral deposits and unique natural habitats, which are part of Somalias heritage. Floristically, Calmadow has approximately 1,000 plant species, 200 of which are endemic and found in this area only.
The Calmadow and its neighbouring areas are also richer in fauna than other parts of Somalia and harbor some of the rarest and most localized of Somalia’s endemic species. Here a Linnet (Warsanghelia johannis, Acanthus olivae (Pigeon) and Golden-winged Grosbeak occur, as well as color full antelope, the Dorctrgus megalotis (Beira) and different species of Gazelles.