Topic: Rhamis will be discussing how the application of permaculture water harvesting earthworks infrastructure will be used to address the ecological challenges faced in Northern Somalia. Of particular interest will be the Sanaag Region, which includes The Cal Madow Mountain Range. Cal Madow’s environment has suffered greatly in recent years along with its ecology, much of which is unique to it. Only a fraction of the flora remains, and its distribution remains sparse and unprotected. Although local knowledge of natural resources endemic to the area is great, agricultural and social projects as well as United Nations and foreign-aided development schemes usually fail to consider or make use of this insight.
A severe drought in the region in the early part of the 21st century caused an 80% or greater loss of livestock, though two good rainy seasons in 2004–2005 helped restore the area. Over a 15-year period of analysis, from 1988–2003, there was a 52% loss of forest and a 40% loss of grassland, and a 370% increase in bare land. Soil erosion due to weather and human activities and clearing of wood and brush for such uses as charcoal and fuel are issues leading to degradation of the environment.
Background: Rhamis Kent is a consultant with formal training in mechanical engineering (University of Delaware, B.S.M.E. ’95) and permaculture-based regenerative whole systems design. He has previously worked for the renowned American inventor and entrepreneur Dean Kamen at DEKA R & D for almost 3 years, with subsequent engineering work ranging from medical device research and development to aerospace oriented mechanical design. After taking an interest in the design science of Permaculture, he sought extended training with permaculture expert and educator Geoff Lawton at the Permaculture Research Institute of Australia. This led to his involvement with design work connected to the development of Masdar City in UAE after Mr. Lawton and Mr. Lawton’s consulting company (Permaculture Sustainable Consultancy Pty. Ltd.) were contracted by AECOM/EDAW to identify solutions which fit the challenging zero emissions/carbon neutral design constraint of the project.
Rhamis recently lectured at Schumacher College (named after the influential economic thinker E.F. Schumacher) in Totnes, Devon UK about the application of permaculture in post-industrial Detroit. He is presently consulting with a delegation of Somali expatriates initiating ecological restoration and education work in Northern Somalia.
Given the rapidly growing interest in sustainable development, Mr. Kent hopes to bring to the attention of the investment community an aspect of the emerging sustainable economy that has yet to be seriously considered for significant financial support – Earth Repair/Ecosystem Restoration Work (ERW) and regenerative design.
Waxaa waajib ka saaran yahay dadka degan degaankaa innay ilaashadaan degaankaas taas oo qiimma gaar ah uu aduunka ka leeyahay degaanka dabiicigga ah,taas oo Dhir iyo Xayawaan badan oo aduunka in tiissa kale aan lagga helin ay jiraan.
In January 1995, a Team of Botanists led by Dr. Mats Thulin of the Uppsala University, Sweden visited the Calmadow range, on behalf of Flora Somalia Project based in Uppsala. The survey was the most extensive botanical survey ever done in the area. About eight new species were discovered and this shows how far the area remained untouched for so many years. Many more plant species surely remain untouched for. A further full ecological research and investigation will undoubtedly provide many more new records for the country.
Calmadow is the mountain range, which situates in the northeastern Somalia extending from several kilometers west of Bosaso to the north west of Erigavo.
The thickly closed mountain forest has an altitude between 700-800 m above sea level with a mean annual rainfall of 750-850mm. The highest peak of the mountain range is 2500m at Shembir beris north west of Erigavo, in addition to the rainfall Calmadow receive additional precipitation, fogs and winter rains which support isolated forests such as Juniperus, Buxus etc,.
The conservation of tropical forests is now a major international concern since they contain approximately 50% of all species and play important roles in prevention of flooding, siltation, soil erosion, water catchments and regulation of climate.
Calmadow’s environment suffered greatly in recent years, along with its ecology, many of which are unique to Calmadow. Most of the remaining forests are small and fragmented and none are protected. Although the local knowledge of natural resources in calmadow is great, agriculturally and social projects, UN and foreign-aided development schemes usually fail to consider or make use of this knowledge.
Although Calmadow range remains inaccessible for clearance, some parts of the Sool area are extremely vulnerable. The acceleration of Acacia bussei (Galool) forest loss for charcoal trade since the nineties indicate that the remaining Acacia forests in the Sool and bush land area near Calmadow , is likely to be wiped out in the next few years, unless urgent action is taken.
The Acacia bussei (Galool) is one of the economically and traditionally most important species found in Somalia. It produces excellent charcoal, fodder, building materials, shade, medicine etc. If it is cut for charcoal, it will take 40 years to get a replacement Galool to grow to a stage suitable for charcoal.
After the collapse of the Somali Government, many people started illegal trade of this tree for charcoal export to the Gulf Countries and there is now a greater danger for desertification to spread in the Sool area. Much of this lucrative trade is illegal under International regulations and there is now an urgent need to reverse this trend. Trees cant speak for themselves-only you can speak out for them, help to stop this cruel business now before it is too late.